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Report代写范文

英国Report代写范文-小孩对大人的信任

来源:网络整理 发布日期:2019-08-04 09:59 阅读: 作者:HotEssay 字数:4629字
文章导读:下面为大家整理一篇优秀的 Report代写 范文- Young Children Have a Specific, Highly Robust Bias to Trust Testimony,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了小孩对大人的信任。小孩子比成年人更容易信任别人,这是常识。毕竟,他们对成人世界缺乏经验,而成人世界通常与欺骗有关。小孩子相信大人的话是很正常的,因为他们似乎很难不相信。一些人认为,这种信任的原因是,即使不是完全依赖成年...

  下面为大家整理一篇优秀的Report代写范文- Young Children Have a Specific, Highly Robust Bias to Trust Testimony,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了小孩对大人的信任。小孩子比成年人更容易信任别人,这是常识。毕竟,他们对成人世界缺乏经验,而成人世界通常与欺骗有关。小孩子相信大人的话是很正常的,因为他们似乎很难不相信。一些人认为,这种信任的原因是,即使不是完全依赖成年人生存,幼儿也高度依赖成年人,这形成了孩子们对与他们互动的个体的普遍期望。

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  It is common sense that young children are more trusting than adults. After all, they have little experience of the adult world that is commonly associated with deception. It is ordinary for young children to take the adults words for it, as they seem to have difficulty in disbelieving. Some argue that the reason for such trust is because young children are highly, if not entirely dependent on the adults for survival. This forms a general expectation of the children for the individuals that they interact with. For the children, the adults are expected to be helpful, as they always are. This leads to the hypothesis that young children have a general, undifferentiated expectation for the adults they interaction with. However, others believe that such generalized expectations are inaccurate. Instead, there are more specific cues or bias to trust. Among these specific factors, testimony is the focus of this paper. Through two studies, the paper aims to find out whether 3-yo children trust in undifferentiated ways, or do they have an especially robust bias towards testimonies.

  小孩子比成年人更信任是常识。毕竟,他们对成人世界的经验很少,而成人世界通常与欺骗有关。对于小孩子来说,接受大人的话是很平常的,因为他们似乎很难相信。一些人认为,这种信任的原因是,即使不是完全依靠成人生存,幼儿也是高度依赖的。这就形成了孩子们对与他们互动的个人的普遍期望。对于孩子们来说,成年人应该像往常一样乐于助人。这就导致了这样一个假设:幼儿对与之交往的成年人有一个普遍的、没有差别的期望。然而,其他人认为这种普遍的期望是不准确的。相反,还有更具体的线索或偏见值得信任。在这些具体因素中,证词是本文的重点。通过两项研究,本文旨在找出3-yo儿童是以未分化的方式信任,还是对证言有特别强烈的偏见。

  In Study 1, 32 3-year-olds were tested individually and went through 8 trail tests to locate the stickers or puppets from under two cups. In the first type of test, the experimenter provided verbal misleading information, leading the children to the wrong cups consecutively. In the second type of test, the experimenter did not provide verbal cues. Instead, she placed an arrow on the wrong cup as a misleading visual information. In Study 2, the comparison was made between verbal instructions alone, and the presence of both verbal and visual directions from the experimenter. The study is conducted through a computer, and the children were asked to find the virtual sticker instead of the physical ones in Study 1. In group 1, children were only able to hear the misleading instructions given to them. In group 2, children were able to both see and hear the misleading instructions through a pre-recorded video.

  在研究1中,32名3岁儿童分别接受了测试,并进行了8次跟踪测试,从两个杯子下找到贴纸或木偶。在第一种类型的测试中,实验者提供了语言误导信息,导致孩子们连续不正确的杯子。在第二种测试中,实验者没有提供语言提示。相反,她在错误的杯子上放了一个箭头,作为误导性的视觉信息。在研究2中,比较了单独的口头指令和实验者的口头和视觉指令。这项研究是通过电脑进行的,要求孩子们在研究1中找到虚拟标签,而不是物理标签。在第一组中,孩子们只能听到给他们的误导性指示。在第二组中,孩子们能够通过预先录制的视频看到和听到误导性的指令。

  Study 1 has found that after the initial trust in the misleading information, children given the nonverbal arrow cues were much quicker in adopting to the situation and realizing that the directions given were misleading. As a result, they earned much more stickers than the other group. In comparison, the children provided with verbal misleading instructions were much less inclined to doubt. This result, according to the authors, is due to the different levels of interferences between the testimony and the visual clues. Similarly, in Study 2, more children in the audio-alone setting realized the deceiving nature of the directions and found more stickers as a result of not listening to the audio instructions. Once the audio directions were not helpful, many children simply chose to tune out or attend to it occasionally only. In contrast, the visual presence of the speaker became a major obstacle for the other group to realize the trick.

  Overall, the initial inclination of children to trust in adults goes without saying. The question lies in whether specific forms of information make children more biased towards trusting than others. The answer is affirmative through the two studies. Young children’s trust in testimony is found to be more robust than visual information. Meanwhile, the presence of the visible speaker image creates even more robust biases among young children than audio testimonies alone. Future research can focus on the mechanism of how children become more skeptical with similar experimental settings. Other more specific sources of bias should also be explored. For example, whether the experimenter is smiling, the impact of facial expression and body language on children’s trust, etc.


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本文标题: 英国Report代写范文-小孩对大人的信任       本文地址:http://www.ocscf.org/case/report/248.html

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