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社会学Report代写范文-社会认识论

来源:网络整理 发布日期:2019-07-14 13:36 阅读: 作者:HotEssay 字数:16675字
文章导读:下面为大家整理一篇优秀的 Report代写 范文- Social epistemology,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了社会认识论。社会认识论是当代西方认识论研究的最新成果,是在批判地反思西方传统认识论研究...

  下面为大家整理一篇优秀的Report代写范文- Social epistemology,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了社会认识论。社会认识论是当代西方认识论研究的最新成果,是在批判地反思西方传统认识论研究误区的基础上产生的。从马克思主义实践观的视角看,社会认识论问题的研究需要区分人的三种基本存在形态,即个体、群体和人类,认识实践的主体是人的个体,个体既受制于政治、经济等显性权力,亦受制于社会、文化、历史、性别等隐性权力和价值因素,从而导致社会认识的多样复杂性。

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  Dialogue paradigm is an important approach to the development of contemporary humanities and social sciences. Marxist philosophy can be enriched and developed through constructive dialogue with western philosophy, and the dialogue with social epistemology is one of them. Social epistemology is the latest achievement of contemporary western epistemology research, which is produced on the basis of critically reflecting on the misunderstanding of traditional western epistemology research. The comparative view of marxist philosophy and social epistemology can reveal the development trend of contemporary world philosophy, highlight the value of marxist philosophy and promote the development of marxist philosophy.

  对话范式是当代人文社会科学发展的重要途径。马克思主义哲学可以通过与西方哲学的建设性对话来丰富和发展,与社会认识论的对话就是其中之一。社会认识论是当代西方认识论研究的最新成果,它是在批判反思对传统西方认识论研究的误区的基础上产生的。马克思主义哲学与社会认识论的比较观可以揭示当代世界哲学的发展趋势,突出马克思主义哲学的价值,促进马克思主义哲学的发展。

  There are mainly two types of researches on social epistemology by domestic researchers, one is the researcher of marxist theory, the other is the researcher of western philosophy, especially scientific philosophy. The results of the first type of research mainly include: yu wujin discussed the influence of marxist philosophy from the perspective of epistemology pedigree, and analyzed the relationship between marxist philosophy and traditional epistemology; Chen shuguang et al. compared the differences between traditional epistemology and marxist philosophy and discussed the transcendence of traditional epistemology by marxism. Others studied the society from the perspective of epistemology and put forward the "social" epistemology of social research. On the whole, domestic marxist researchers attach importance to the dialogue between marxism and western philosophy, and have made certain achievements in the comparison between marxist epistemology and western traditional epistemology. The second kind of research focuses on the contemporary development of western epistemology and closely follows the latest development of social epistemology. However, researchers of western philosophy and philosophy of science focus too much on social epistemology and less on the dialogue between marxist philosophy and social epistemology. Starting from the individuality, historicity and purpose of marxist practice view, this paper explores the possibility expansion of social epistemology, so as to highlight the modern value of marxist philosophy and promote its development.

  国内学者对社会认识论的研究主要有两种,一种是马克思主义理论研究者,另一种是西方哲学研究者,特别是科学哲学研究者。第一类研究成果主要包括:余武进从认识论谱系的角度探讨了马克思主义哲学的影响,分析了马克思主义哲学与传统认识论的关系;陈曙光等。比较了传统认识论与马克思主义哲学的差异,探讨了马克思主义对传统认识论的超越。另一些人从认识论的角度对社会进行了研究,提出了社会研究的“社会”认识论。总体而言,国内马克思主义研究者重视马克思主义与西方哲学的对话,在比较马克思主义认识论与西方传统认识论方面取得了一定的成就。第二类研究关注西方认识论的当代发展,密切关注社会认识论的最新发展。然而,西方哲学和科学哲学的研究者过分关注社会认识论,较少关注马克思主义哲学与社会认识论的对话。本文从马克思主义实践观的个性、历史性和目的性出发,探讨社会认识论的可能性拓展,以突出马克思主义哲学的现代价值,促进其发展。

  Ye zexiong pointed out: "talent is the ontological premise of social epistemology. Here again, 'society' must be avoided as an abstract thing opposed to the individual. The individual is a social being. Therefore, the expression of his life... It is also the expression and confirmation of social life. '" "there are three basic forms of human existence: the single form of the individual; The special form of a group; The general form of man as a species ". In many cases, the three distinctions of people may not have great significance, but the research on social epistemology is of great significance, because it is precisely the individual diversity and complexity of people that determine the complexity of social cognition.

  叶泽雄指出:“人才是社会认识论的本体论前提。在这里,“社会”必须作为一个抽象的事物而避免与个人对立。个人是一个社会性的存在。因此,他的生活表达…它也是社会生活的表达和确认。”人类存在有三种基本形式:个体的单一形式;群体的特殊形式;人类作为一个物种的一般形式”。在许多情况下,人的三种不同可能没有重大意义,但对社会认识论的研究具有重大意义,因为正是人的个体多样性和复杂性决定了社会认知的复杂性。

  For the same object, understanding the main body of each participating know due to their different social class, knowledge, experience, and depth of understanding different, different interests, etc., will be filtered to obtain information, from the perspective of cognitive basis, and will start to know, this creates social understanding of the diversity and complexity.

  对于同一个对象,由于不同的社会阶层、知识、经验和理解的深度不同、兴趣不同等原因,对每个参与的知识主体的理解将从认知基础的角度进行过滤,以获取信息,并开始知道吗,这创造了对多样性和复杂性的社会理解。

  Generally speaking, in practical practice, individuals are mainly subject to two factors that lead to the diverse complexity of social cognition, one is power and the other is value. Among them, power is divided into explicit power and implicit power, such as political and economic power, and implicit power such as society, culture, history and gender. These two factors act on individual cognition individually or interactively, which makes the overall social cognition complex.

  一般来说,在实践中,个体主要受两个因素的影响,一个是权力,另一个是价值。其中,权力分为显性权力和隐性权力,如政治和经济权力,以及隐性权力,如社会、文化、历史和性别。这两个因素分别或相互作用于个体认知,使整个社会认知复杂化。

  The explicit power of politics and economy leads to the individuality of people's cognition, which is bound to lead to different cognition of individuals in different political and economic fields and jointly lead to the complex diversity of social cognition. Take scientific knowledge. "The defense of scientific knowledge is increasingly dependent on technological means, which means political and economic power like government and business. If the principle of 'science for science's sake' can be followed when science does not have to cost taxpayers' money, the autonomy of science, or the freedom to explore, can be satisfied, and the moral self-discipline of science is not an issue. But now science needs investment, sometimes huge investment, and science has to find sponsors for itself, either governments or companies. Which direction research will go and which theories will get more defense seems to depend on who has the money and resources to get the evidence and who gets the funding." In this way, the other cognition of human beings in practice is bound to be individual under the influence of political, economic and other dominant powers, thus resulting in the complex diversity of social cognition.

  政治经济的显性力量导致人们认知的个体性,必然导致不同政治经济领域的个体认知的不同,共同导致社会认知的复杂多样性。接受科学知识。”科学知识的保护越来越依赖于技术手段,这意味着政治和经济权力,如政府和企业。如果科学不需要花费纳税人的钱就可以遵循“科学是为了科学”的原则,那么科学的自主性或探索的自由就可以得到满足,而科学的道德自律就不是问题。但是现在科学需要投资,有时是巨大的投资,科学必须为自己找到赞助者,不管是政府还是公司。哪一个方向的研究将走向何方,哪一个理论将得到更多的辩护,似乎取决于谁有财力和资源来获取证据,谁得到资金,“这样,在政治、经济等因素的影响下,人类在实践中的其他认知必然是个体的。IC等主导力量,从而导致社会认知的复杂多样性。

  Social, cultural and historical factors, especially gender and related differences, will lead to the individuality of people's cognition, and each person will have different understandings of the same object due to the differences of many social, cultural and historical factors including gender differences, gender identity and other factors, thus resulting in complex and diverse social cognition. Take Marx. Marx's theory of women was obviously different from that of many scholars of his time. He believed that women were of great significance to social progress, pointing out that: "everyone who knows a little history also knows that great social changes cannot happen without women's enzymes. Social progress can be accurately measured by women's status in society." Furthermore, on specific women's issues, such as women workers and their organizations, Marx noticed the particularity of women's issues. In his instructions to the representatives of the international workers' association in 1866 and in his critique of the gotha program, Marx made it clear that "women must be absolutely prohibited from any night work and from all kinds of work which is affected by toxic and other harmful substances." There is no doubt that the gender differences and gender differences related to the social division of labor, social condition, the difference of the social cultural and historical factors such as thinking mode, to which a particular individual social circumstances for knowledge acquisition, further also determines the different views of the world, cause people know individuality, diversity and specificity of epistemology.

  The difference of values leads to the individuality of people's cognition, and each person has different cognition due to his own value bias, which makes the overall social cognition appear complex and diverse. Many scholars have expressed this view in the history of philosophy, especially in the school of feminist epistemology. In 1985, the royal society published a report in the public understanding of science, which proposed the "missing model". A group of scholars from Lancaster university argued that science was entangled with many values and social powers. In 1987, feminist epistemologist Helen longino wrote in her book "can there be a science of gender equality?" It is pointed out in this paper that researchers will unconsciously put their own values into the scientific research process to construct scientific knowledge. In addition, many scholars believe that in practice, people's understanding is by no means value-free, and it is impossible to evaluate which group or individual's value bias is more advantageous. Value leads to the individuality of people's cognition, and individuals with diverse values have different cognition, which leads to the complex diversity of social cognition.

  Not only that, the rise of the Internet era, the development of the Internet, especially the "we media", has greatly promoted such individualization and complexity. The development process of the Internet itself is an individual process. It is decentralized and emphasizes and highlights each individual in an unprecedented way. This point is widely concerned and recognized by Chinese and foreign scholars. As early as 1985, MIT's media lab began developing a "personalized" newspaper on the Internet. Based on each person's different interests and needs, the online program would automatically select news information suitable for the user and provide it to each individual.

  With the development of the Internet today, this setting, called "personalized information system", has been applied in many fields of the Internet, such as information retrieval, shopping and so on. It can monitor the information of each individual user in the Internet, and can automatically filter and selectively provide the information needed for each individual.

  Obviously, on the one hand, people with diversity, complexity, such as in different field of politics, economy, gender and relevant differences, have different social and cultural history background, value difference and so on, variety, complex experience based on the practice of their produce diversified know which cause the complexity of social cognition; On the other hand, the development process of the Internet itself is an individualization process, especially the development of we media, which greatly advances the individualization and complexity of the subject, and greatly highlights and further increases the diversity and complexity of social cognition. Therefore, the study of social epistemology must distinguish the three basic forms of human beings. The practical individuals in the process of life practice are very important cognitive subjects, and the individuality of practice should be the focus of the study of social epistemology.

  The realization of human practical activities is limited each time, while human practical activities themselves are an infinite historical process. Human creativity, incompleteness and openness are the practicality of human existence.

  Human practice is historical practice, and human cognitive ability and conditions are rooted in historical practice itself. Social epistemology must pay attention to historical totality. As Marx pointed out, "where history begins, the process of thought should also begin, and the further development of the process of thought is only the abstract, theoretically consistent and formal reflection of the process of history." Lukacs also points out in history and class consciousness: "only the historical existence in practice can really eliminate the independence of things and their concepts and the rigid opposition caused by it. It breaks the pure independence of the epistemological factors and puts them into the concrete general historical process itself. That's how it's possible." The historical nature of practice determines that we must uphold the perspective of historical totality in the study of social epistemology, pay attention to the continuity of social history in general time, and pay attention to the expansion of social history in general space.

  History is a potential future. The present contains both the past and the future. This is the view held by many philosophers through the ages, and is why it is only in history, in the course of history, in the constant production of new things, that the necessary normative order can be found in the sphere of things. So must the study of human knowledge.

  Thinking and being are unified, human cognition and social and historical existence are unified, and the logical law of human cognition development exists in social and historical existence. On the surface, the development of history is chaotic and full of contingency, but in fact it has its laws and logic to follow. One of the tasks of historical philosophy is to discover the law of social and historical development from history. Therefore, we can tease out the inevitability of the development of knowledge from the history of the development of knowledge, so as to predict its future direction. Development prediction is not a subjective prediction, which can not be separated from the history of human knowledge development, but a natural reflection in the history of human knowledge development, and an inevitable result of the history of human knowledge development.

  The study of social epistemology from the perspective of the overall continuity of social history enables us to avoid imposing our subjective guesses on the development trend of cognition on cognition itself, but to explore the results caused by the inevitability of natural development process. Exploration is not subjective, but in the historical exploration of a process, history to find out the law of development, naturally come to a conclusion.

  Although we study any question of social epistemology is bound to have a clear direction, but the historical practice is multifaceted and complex, they can not be simplified or linear with one or several rules. The study of social epistemology must pay attention to the expansion of the overall space of social history. As lukacs says: "the abstract isolation of factors is inevitable. Decisive thing has always been, however, this kind of islanding is just understanding of the whole method, that is to say, this kind of islanding is always incorporated into required as the prerequisite of the understanding and the understanding of the true total contact, or, the abstract understanding of the local areas of isolated, whether to keep "self-discipline", whether it is always the purpose itself. For marxists, therefore, there is, in the final analysis, no independent science of law, political economy, historical science, etc., but only one single, unified -- historical and dialectical -- science of social development."

  Lenin emphasized in materialism and critical experience that "the viewpoint of life and practice should be the primary and basic viewpoint of epistemology." The study of social epistemology will become an air house if it ignores the viewpoint of practice, because it is the individuality of practice that determines the complexity of social cognition, the historicity of practice that determines the historical totality of social cognition, and the purposiveness of practice that is the fundamental goal of social epistemology. Therefore, attention to practical practice is the starting point, as well as the goal and destination of social epistemology. Starting from the marxist view of practice, it is possible to explore the possibility of social epistemology. The comparison between marxist philosophy and social epistemology, and the constructive dialogue, can provide a glimpse of the development trend of contemporary world philosophy and highlight the value of marxist philosophy in The Times, while marxist philosophy can be enriched and developed by referring to and absorbing the excellent research achievements of western philosophy.


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