来源:网络整理 发布日期:2019-08-19 15:52 阅读: 作者:HotEssay 字数:7554字
文章导读:下面为大家整理一篇优秀的 paper代写 范文- Western school of psychology,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了西方心理学学派。西方的科学和文明,多是基于实践统计和哲学思考,且更重实践。所以,其心理学的发展和完善,主要也是建立在实践的基础上,通过大量实践得出理论,也因此出现了很多学派,同时不同时期某一学派也会被后来者质疑甚至推翻,人的认知往往有个过程,而且...

  下面为大家整理一篇优秀的paper代写范文- Western school of psychology,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了西方心理学学派。西方的科学和文明,多是基于实践统计和哲学思考,且更重实践。所以,其心理学的发展和完善,主要也是建立在实践的基础上,通过大量实践得出理论,也因此出现了很多学派,同时不同时期某一学派也会被后来者质疑甚至推翻,人的认知往往有个过程,而且实践受限于时代和外部条件。普通西方科学的发展,理论不断进步甚至革新。



  Before science was booming, psychology was robust. Psychology belongs to the category of philosophy. As a behavioral science dedicated to studying the changes of people's inner activities, it originated from the west at first. Specifically, as early as 2000 years ago in ancient Greece, psychology was a branch of philosophy at that time.


  Western psychology originated in ancient Greece, because the philosophers Aristotle and Plato at that time devoted themselves to thinking about philosophy and promoting the development of philosophy, so as to develop the new realm of psychology.


  Plato divided people into two parts, the soul and the body. Aristotle, on the other hand, believes that human beings are able to carry out all life activities different from animals, because human heart keeps beating, human organs work and human brain thinks, and these knowledge analyzed and guided goes into the heart, thus forming changes in psychological activities. Deeply guided by idealism, he believed that all human actions are arbitrary and controlled by the heart, so that the scientific psychological research was gradually dominated by the Christian god, and the research on psychology gradually went to the bottleneck. However, it was not until the industrial revolution in the 17th century and the development of modern science that psychology broke away from the Christian way of thinking and established scientific theories.


  From the British "empirical psychology" to the developmental "associative psychology" of Locke and Hume, to the "rationalist psychology" proposed by Descartes and wolff of Germany at the same time, it finally developed into "competency-based psychology". From the 18th century to the 19th century, with the rapid development of western medicine and physical physiology, it has exerted a great influence on western psychology. Among them, there is a view that psychology should be originated not in philosophy but in physiology. In the middle of the 19th century, with the emergence of von ter, modern scientific psychology was finally born. Wilhelm wundt set up the first psychological laboratory in the world, which makes the psychologists are coming in of the world, to jointly study and learning, so the study on the philosophy of psychology is no longer the former simple categories, have a scientific basis for the field of psychology category, devoid of meditation of the study of human psychology, formed a complete system of structuralism psychology, this is the enormous development and epochal milestone in the history of psychology.


  Through laboratory experiments, American psychologist Watson observed the behavior of rats and learned that although humans could not fully grasp the thought of rats, they could control their behavior. Behavior is actually the derivative of consciousness, so psychology can also play a role in prediction, so as to achieve a certain purpose. In the experiment, Watson also found that once the subject was stimulated during the experiment, only analyzing its external behaviors could achieve these goals, and only effective stimulation and guidance were needed to complete the purpose of artificial control. So we put forward a series of new scientific basis and formed theories and methods. While Watson advocated behaviorist psychology, gestalt psychology advocated by German psychologist wertheimer and others was born in Europe on the other side of the ocean.

  Wittheimer published papers on the phenomenon of "simulacities", opposed the constructivism theory, and established the gestalt psychology. He believed that objects in the eyes of human beings were not as simple as they thought, but simply represented by simple points and lines, which were a comprehensive reflection of the whole.

  Freud believed that human consciousness is in three levels, namely, the consciousness of active thinking and action, the forgotten "pre-consciousness" and the "unconscious" which is usually suppressed under the consciousness and does not show. So it is divided into several different forms, so in this case, the mental state is a new psychological concept formed according to the psychological characteristics of different periods. Jung thought that there are two kinds of unconscious, divided into individual unconscious and collective unconscious theory. After more than one hundred years of development, western psychology has exerted a great influence on western society and countries, which is mainly formed by the joint efforts of many psychologists, and has also exerted a great influence on the psychological research in China.

  Western science and civilization are mostly based on practical statistics and philosophical thinking, with more emphasis on practice. Therefore, the development and improvement of its psychology is mainly based on practice, and theories are obtained through a lot of practice. Therefore, many schools have emerged, and a certain school in different periods will be questioned or even overturned by later generations. Human cognition often has a process, and practice is limited by times and external conditions. The development of common western science, the theory advances ceaselessly even innovate. Chinese culture, on the other hand, has been established in the beginning with a consistent tao and a metaphysical ideological foundation, which emphasizes the unity of man and nature and the unity of the universe and me. On this basis, various academic schools have been derived, but they are unified with this tao, so all changes remain the same. In short, this tao is derived from the ancient Chinese people's observation of the natural universe. It has been passed down for thousands of years and has not declined. The whole Chinese civilization is also based on it.

  Chinese culture advocates solving psychological problems from the fundamental point of cultivating one's morality and cultivating one's character, and holds that all psychological problems are internal and external problems of human nature, and the solutions come down to tao and ethics derived from tao. The starting point for solving the problem is to start from the root, from the root. Since western psychology comes from practice, it can go directly into practice. Some methods are concise and effective, and can directly solve problems or explain phenomena. At the same time, it is closely related to physiological research. This is one of the reasons why western psychology has a certain influence on Chinese psychology, so Chinese psychology takes its essence to discard its dregs and forms modern psychology.


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