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美国Paper代写范文-美国的农业政策

来源:网络整理 发布日期:2019-07-26 08:51 阅读: 作者:HotEssay 字数:16672字
文章导读:下面为大家整理一篇优秀的 Paper代写 范文- American agricultural policy,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的农业政策。以前,美国的农业政策主要关注的是政府财政收入和国家粮食安全,并没有太关注农民的收入和社会福利,公共土地分配也遇到了许多复杂问题。政府腐败、对农民不负责任以及金融危机等推动了农民组织的崛起,并且逐步形成了独立的经济和政治诉求。到了2...

  下面为大家整理一篇优秀的Paper代写范文- American agricultural policy,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的农业政策。以前,美国的农业政策主要关注的是政府财政收入和国家粮食安全,并没有太关注农民的收入和社会福利,公共土地分配也遇到了许多复杂问题。政府腐败、对农民不负责任以及金融危机等推动了农民组织的崛起,并且逐步形成了独立的经济和政治诉求。到了20世纪,更多的农业组织出现了,包括国家农民组织,国家农民联盟和美国农业局等,随后美国农产品和畜牧业组织也成立了。经历了长期而艰难的发展,美国逐步建立了较为发达的农业经济和较为完善的农业基础设施、农业政策。

  以下为Paper代写范文全文,由HotEssay浩天论文网整理发布,供大家参考阅读学习之用,如有Paper代写需要,请联系网站客服。

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  American agricultural policy today has evolved over a long period of time. Historically, not all agricultural policies have been for the benefit of farmers, nor have they directly involved the production and trading of agricultural products. Wartime food rationing, agricultural price control, taxation, food and nutrition programs, and rural development programs are all important parts of the history of American agricultural policy.

  今天的美国农业政策经过了很长一段时间的发展。历史上,并非所有的农业政策都是为了农民的利益,也没有直接涉及农产品的生产和贸易。战时粮食配给、农业价格控制、税收、粮食和营养计划以及农村发展计划都是美国农业政策历史的重要组成部分。

  For a long time, many excellent economists in the United States have written many excellent books on the development of American agricultural policy. In the 1950s, one of the best books on the history of agricultural policy was Murray benedicott's Farm Policies of the United States 1790-1950, Willard cochran's the Development of American Agriculture, A Historical Analysis, and Wayne rasmussen's Gaining Access, Congress and the Farm Lobby1919 -- 1981. Among them, access to authority, congress and agricultural lobby 1919-1981 comprehensively reviewed the historical changes of American agricultural policy from 1919 to 1981. Based on these excellent and rich historical documents, this paper will study the evolution of American agricultural policy.

  长期以来,美国许多优秀的经济学家写了许多关于美国农业政策发展的优秀书籍。上世纪50年代,关于农业政策历史的最好书籍之一是默里·本尼迪科特(Murray Benedicott)1790-1950年的《美国农业政策》、威拉德·科克伦(Willard Cochran)的《美国农业发展史》(The Development of American Agriculture)、《历史分析》(A Historical Analysis)和韦恩·拉斯穆森(Wayne Rasmussen)的《获得准入》、《国会和农场游说》(The Farm--1981年。其中,1919-1981年获得权威、国会和农业游说团体全面回顾了1919-1981年美国农业政策的历史变化。基于这些优秀而丰富的历史文献,本文将对美国农业政策的演变进行研究。

  Agricultural policy is a very old institutional arrangement. As hardwig and Hadwiger and Talbot commented on Kennedy's agricultural policy: the Kennedy administration's problems with agriculture, farms, and farmers in the early 1960s date back even to the old testament. Ancient China enacted a law on government grain storage. Many ancient laws in the western world also dealt with land use and lease, land ownership disputes, house leases, labor relations on farms, credit policies, and tax policies.

  农业政策是一项非常古老的制度安排。正如Hardwig、Hadwiger和Talbot对肯尼迪的农业政策发表的评论:肯尼迪政府在农业、农场和农民方面的问题可以追溯到20世纪60年代初的旧约。中国古代颁布了一部关于政府储粮的法律。西方世界许多古老的法律也涉及土地使用和租赁、土地所有权纠纷、房屋租赁、农场劳动关系、信贷政策和税收政策。

  Agricultural subsidies and nutrition programs were also included in ancient Roman law. According to Roman law, the purchase of grain by the inhabitants could be subsidized by the government. If the market price was too high, the government could buy grain and bread at the market price and sell it to the inhabitants at a lower price than the market price. The Roman agricultural plan involved the redistribution of land from the nobility to the common people and was considered the forerunner of the modern land redistribution plan.

  古罗马法还包括农业补贴和营养计划。根据罗马法,居民购买粮食可以由政府补贴。如果市场价格过高,政府可以按市场价格购买粮食和面包,并以低于市场价格的价格卖给居民。罗马农业计划涉及到从贵族到平民的土地再分配,被认为是现代土地再分配计划的先驱。

  Modern American agricultural policy can be traced back to the early British legal system and mercantilism. Early English laws included the corn laws and the bonus laws. The "corn laws" date back to the 16th century when the British government banned the import of wheat and grain, aiming to keep the price of domestic agricultural products at a high level and prevent the cost of grain from hurting farmers. When the market price of wheat, rye, barley and malt falls by more than a certain amount, the government pays "bonuses" to producers of these products through "bonus laws". Here, the "bonus" can be seen as a precursor to modern agricultural subsidies.

  现代美国农业政策可以追溯到英国早期的法律制度和重商主义。早期的英国法律包括玉米法和奖金法。“玉米法”可以追溯到16世纪,当时英国政府禁止进口小麦和谷物,目的是使国内农产品价格保持在较高水平,防止谷物成本损害农民。当小麦、黑麦、大麦和麦芽的市场价格下跌超过一定幅度时,政府通过“奖金法”向这些产品的生产者支付“奖金”。在这里,“奖金”可以看作是现代农业补贴的前兆。

  There has been controversy over the corn laws and the bonus laws. One view is that the "corn laws" and "bonus laws" were designed to secure domestic food supplies; There was also a view that the main purpose of the corn and bonus laws was to protect the interests of the landed classes. Barnes points out that the rationale for repealing the "corn laws" was that farmers were working for a subsistence wage, and that free trade led to lower agricultural prices and lower incomes, resulting in domestic food shortages and even famine.

  Early American agricultural policy did not include agricultural subsidies, which mainly considered agricultural supply, national food security and government revenue. From the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century, American agricultural policy was mainly concerned with the revenue of the federal government. Historically, the federal government has had little power to raise revenue or to provide subsidies to farmers. States collect their own taxes and are reluctant to support a weak central government. The federal government earns most of its revenue from taxes on interstate trade and from import and export duties. At that time, both domestic and international trade were mainly agricultural products. Therefore, from the perspective of taxation, the us government attached importance to the protection of agriculture.

  As time goes on, people realized that the United States needs more and more powerful central government revenue, and as a result, the constitution of the United States to the federal government to broad power to tax in order to increase income, paragraph 8 of article 1787 of the constitution of the United States: "congress shall have the right to formulate and collect taxes, duties, import taxes and consumption taxes, to repay its debts, and provides funding for the defense and welfare. All duties, import duties and excise duties should be uniform... And... To enact such laws as are necessary and appropriate to enforce these powers and the powers vested in the relevant branches of the United States government under this constitution." In terms of farm taxes, these include federal land taxes and taxes on distilled spirits, tobacco, tobacco, and sugar. At the time, most alcohol production was in rural enterprises, and farmers united to oppose a federal tax on alcohol. The resulting Whiskey Rebellion was thought to be the first time farmers in the United States staged a tax revolt. From 1787 to the civil war, American agricultural policy mainly involved land, credit, tariff and slavery. Land sales increased federal revenue and provided opportunities for agriculture in the western United States.

  The Preemption Act of 1841 sought to solve the problem of federal revenue by disposing of government-owned land. The law allows settlers to claim 160 acres at $1.25 an acre. Later, for political reasons, the United States government passed the Homestead Act of 1862, which allowed settlers who had lived on public land for five years to acquire title to the land for free.

  After the civil war, veterans were allowed to live, work and take ownership of 160 acres of federal land. The Indian homestead act of 1875 provided 160 acres for Indians over the age of 21 who were heads of households, provided they were farmers. It should be noted that other public Land resettlement policies in the United States are mostly based on the homestead Act, including the Timber Culture Act of 1873, the Desert Land Act of 1877, the Timber and Stone Act of 1878, and the Timber Cutting Act of 1878. However, the Preemption Act and "timber extraction" were abolished in 1891.

  Government subsidies for railway construction helped push land reclamation in the western United States. It is estimated that the U.S. government has provided 129 million acres of public land to railroads to secure rights to roads and tracks. The Pacific railroad act of 1863 provided incentives for railroad and town building and European resettlement.

  During the great western expansion, American farmers experienced severe inflation, speculative bubbles and economic depression. Credit and financing for farm operations became a serious problem. As Benedict points out, many farmers lost their land during the recession because they could not repay their loans. Therefore, people asked the government to strengthen the management of agricultural loans, the establishment of agricultural credit system.

  For the vast majority of farmers, land migration policy has brought opportunities, but also brought harm. In his book American agricultural policy, 1790-1950, Murray benedicte points out that land speculation and fraud became common during this period.

  The public is generally opposed to land immigration policies. J. Sterling Morton, then secretary of agriculture, accused the homestead act of reducing the value of farmland in the east and giving farmers in the west an unfair competitive advantage. The minister also said the rail subsidies had reduced the cost of transporting produce in the west and put farmers in the east at a competitive disadvantage. This unearned gain has led to an unusually rapid increase in the area under cultivation in the United States over the past 30 years... The lack of legislative protection for public land is harmful to farmers who have bought land and worked on it.

  Some also accused the railroad subsidy act of robbing Indians of their land. During the economic crisis of 1893, criticism of the government's land policies kept rising, and various agricultural organizations sprang up. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, family farms began to appear in large Numbers in the United States through the allocation of public land through the land immigration policy.

  Until the outbreak of the American civil war, plantation agriculture relied heavily on slave labor. The land migration policy before the civil war reflected a compromise that divided states that supported the use of slaves from those that opposed it. The final settlement of the slavery problem was through the American civil war and the fundamental reform of the American agricultural system. After the civil war, the 14th amendment changed southern agriculture from plantations where slaves worked to land leased by tenants. William gee studied the history of the land lease system in the United States. He proposed that the destruction of large plantations was the main reason for the large number of lease systems in the south. After the emancipation of the slaves, the farmers found the agricultural workers less reliable and less controllable than the slaves. The best way to keep farm workers in the south, and to reduce the expense and trouble of monitoring them, is to give them a proportion of the crops they grow in exchange for their hard work.

  Shared leases are also sometimes used to meet the needs of landless agricultural workers and cash-strapped growers after the civil war. According to Oklahoma history, under the "sharing system," tenants owned a percentage of the crops and the rest went to the landlords. Some argue that leasing exploits farmers, and criticism of the system also includes the misuse of land by landlords and the establishment of a rigid peasant class. This criticism can be contrasted with gee's view, as gee lists many advantages of the lease system. It was not until the second world war that the lease system of American agriculture was widely developed. But postwar technological advances and nonfarm job growth eventually ended the American leasing system.

  The Morrill Act of 1862 granted each state 30,000 acres of federal land to each senator and representative. These lands could be sold and used to establish engineering, agricultural, and military science colleges "for the advancement of industry, agriculture, military, and education." The second morrill act of 1890 required states to establish independent colleges to protect different ethnic cultures and to distribute the rents received fairly. As a result, 16 land-grant colleges for blacks were established throughout the south. In 1965, under section 5 of the Higher Education Act, universities serving hispanics and supporting agricultural research and Education were authorized to operate. The Educational land-grant Status Act of 1994 made Indian tribal universities eligible for Land grants, a program that allowed land-grant colleges, like all universities in the United States, to grow rapidly. Grants to the land grant system often include the university of tuskegee, particularly in view of the fact that tuskegee university, as a traditionally black college, is primarily engaged in agricultural extension and agricultural research, and funding for the university's agricultural and agricultural research, as well as agricultural education.

  In 1887 the Hatch Act was passed to fund agricultural research projects at land-grant universities. In the smith-lever Act of 1914, a supplementary regulation was proposed to increase the financial support for agricultural education in land-grant universities. The smith-lever act of 1917 decided to fund vocational education programs for agricultural research in secondary schools. Farmers' organizations and agricultural infrastructure

  With the help of New York state, construction of the Erie canal began in 1825. The Erie canal, and later the construction of railroads, strongly supported the development of the west. The Pacific railroad act of 1862 promoted the construction of American railways. It was the massive subsidies to railroads, and later the federal highway system, that allowed American agriculture to flourish.

  Government land grants created transportation monopolies that led to price monopolies and corrupt rail freight rates. Corruption and land speculation are clearly the result of a lack of competition and regulation. "When competition is absent, it can lead to favoring big shippers, rebates, special support for providing cars, barn location monopolies, and many other forms of abuse," says Mr Benedicte. Because of the lack of competition, "agricultural prices in the west are four times higher than in the east."

  In 1891, the peasants' union joined the Knights of Labor, forming the patriotism Party. They advocated simpler credit conditions, a progressive income tax, the regulation of railroads, the free casting of silver, and "depository" schemes that became the prototype of the agricultural credit corporation of the 20th century. These agricultural organizations laid the foundation for the later adjustment of American agricultural policy. It should be noted that "hard money" has a long history as a store of value. In the second half of the 19th century, the idea that gold and silver were the only store of value persisted to this day. Gold and silver COINS would be separated from circulation, considered largely immune to currency manipulation, and more inflationary or deflationary than paper money.

  The forces representing physiocrats and populists have had some electoral success. In the great plains, south and northwest, populist candidates won 11 governorships between 1893 and 1899. National legislation has been passed, including measures to set maximum freight rates for coal mined in the country, establish public standards to ensure fairness, laws to hold railroads accountable for prairie and grain fires caused by locomotives, "usury laws" and, in exceptional cases, to extend the time it takes for property taxes to be paid. Later, the influence of physiocrats and populists declined significantly, but the successive farm laws passed by states during this period laid the groundwork for federal legislation in the 20th century.

  The early American agricultural policy mainly focused on government revenue and national food security, and paid little attention to farmers' income and social welfare. The distribution of public land also encountered many complex issues, including slavery and national rights, the American civil war and Indian wars, economic interests and political interests. Government corruption, irresponsibility to farmers and financial crisis have promoted the rise of peasant organizations and gradually formed independent economic and political demands. In the 20th century, more agricultural organizations appeared, including the National Farmer's Organization, the National Farmers Union, and the American Farm Bureau, followed by the formation of agricultural and livestock organizations in the United States.


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