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英国Paper代写范文-英国的圣徒崇拜

来源:网络 发布日期:2019-05-31 12:44 阅读: 作者:HotEssay 字数:12138字
文章导读:本篇是一篇英国Paper代写范文。题目为:The cult of saints in England。本文主要讨论了英国的圣徒崇拜。在中世纪晚期,英国的圣徒崇拜盛行,成为民众宗教信仰的中心。与中世纪早期相比,...
  本篇是一篇英国Paper代写范文。题目为:The cult of saints in England。本文主要讨论了英国的圣徒崇拜。在中世纪晚期,英国的圣徒崇拜盛行,成为民众宗教信仰的中心。与中世纪早期相比,晚期的圣徒崇拜已发生了一些变化,民众已经开始关注到自己,具有了自我取向与现实取向。这表明在中世纪晚期,英国民众的宗教信仰中出现了个人主义倾向,在物质力量增长的同时,英国民众的精神力量也在发展。
 
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  英国Paper代写范文
英国的圣徒崇拜
 
  In the late middle ages,the worship of saints prevailed in England and became the center of people's religious belief.Compared with the early medieval period,the later period of saints worship has undergone some changes,the public has begun to pay attention to their own,with a self-orientation and realistic orientation.This shows that in the late middle ages,the religious belief of the British people showed a tendency of"individualism".As the material power grew,the spiritual power of the British people also developed.
       中世纪晚期,圣人崇拜在英国盛行,成为人们宗教信仰的中心,与中世纪早期相比,中世纪后期的圣人崇拜经历了一些变化,公众开始关注自己,有了自我定位和现实定位,这表明在中世纪后期中世纪,英国人的宗教信仰呈现出“个人主义”倾向,随着物质力量的增长,英国人的精神力量也得到了发展。
 
  The late middle ages gave birth to the factors of social transformation."before capitalism swallowed up peasants as a class,it took the general development of individual peasants'material and spiritual power as the cornerstone of its development.As for the growth of peasants'material power,Mr.Hou jianxin has made a systematic and in-depth study in the first cornerstone of modernization.However,it is still a new subject to discuss the development of the spiritual power of the British people in the late middle ages from the perspective of the religious belief of the British people,especially the worship of saints."Hagiolatry is the centre of all men's religious beliefs,"and confides our intimate wants to these saints,who dare not address their private wishes directly to the highest judge,and who,because of their own experience and knowledge of human frailties,have no other power but to pray to their providence.Therefore,it is of great significance for us to understand the development of the spiritual power of the British people in the late middle ages through the study of saints worship and the perspective of the value orientation contained in the religious beliefs of the British people in the late middle ages.
       中世纪后期产生了社会转型的因素,“在资本主义吞并农民阶级之前,它以个体农民物质和精神力量的普遍发展为发展的基石,而在农民物质力量的增长方面,侯建新先生对农民物质力量的发展作了系统深入的研究。现代化的第一个基石。然而,从英国人的宗教信仰,特别是对圣徒的崇拜的角度来探讨中世纪后期英国人精神力量的发展,仍然是一个新的课题。“巫术是所有人宗教信仰的中心”,并向我们吐露我们的内心世界。马蒂希望这些不敢直接向最高法官表达个人意愿的圣徒们,因为他们自己的经验和对人类弱点的了解,除了向他们的上帝祈祷之外,没有其他的力量。因此,了解英国人民精神力量的发展,对我们有着重要的意义。通过对中世纪后期圣人崇拜的研究和对中世纪晚期英国人宗教信仰所包含的价值取向的透视。
 
  Hagiolatry has a long history.According to gaea,hagiolatry originates from the beliefs and rituals of early Judaism and Christianity.Jews worshiped senior clerics,prophets and martyrs and built monuments where they were buried.Christians carry on the tradition of Judaism.As early as the first and second centuries AD,christians began to make saints of the"martyrs"persecuted and killed by the Roman empire and to publicly worship them.In the centuries that followed,the saints expanded to include not only the"martyrs"who gave their lives for their faith,but also the"holy and wise"fathers,bishops,missionaries,and laymen who died a natural death.
       宗教崇拜有着悠久的历史。根据盖亚的说法,宗教崇拜起源于早期犹太教和基督教的信仰和仪式。犹太人崇拜高级神职人员、先知和烈士,并在他们埋葬的地方建造纪念碑。基督徒继承犹太教的传统。早在公元一、二世纪,基督徒就开始制造圣徒。在罗马帝国迫害和杀害并公开崇拜他们的“烈士”中,在随后的几个世纪里,圣徒们不仅包括为信仰献出生命的“烈士”,还包括“圣洁和智慧”的父亲、主教、传教士和死于自然死亡的外行。
 
  As for the definition of saints,the official definition of Catholic saints is"those whom the church honors with official liturgy".The Pope canonized them on the basis of"good character and miracles."Of course,sainthood is not a consistent concept."every Pope has his own idea of sanctification,"he said.This identity is not limited to the official canonization of saints,because the"sacredness"of saints exists not only in the official canonization of saints,but also in a large number of other people and things:first of all,god,the superhuman person,in addition to tangible objects,church organizations and so on.The concept of"holiness"varies from place to place.For historians,an important criterion for sainthood is whether a saint is seen by his followers as a source of supernatural power.In fact,saints are first and foremost local saints.In the eyes of the people,there is no difference between the official saints and the local saints.The popes also let local hagiography run its course.
       至于圣徒的定义,官方对天主教圣徒的定义是“教会以官方礼拜仪式尊敬的人”。教皇根据“良好的品格和奇迹”将他们封为圣徒。当然,圣徒身份并不是一个一致的概念。“每个教皇都有自己的圣徒观念,”他说。这个身份不限于官方的C。圣徒的崇拜,因为圣徒的“神圣性”不仅存在于圣徒的官方崇拜中,而且也存在于大量的其他人和事物中:首先,上帝,超人,除了有形的物体、教会组织等之外。“神圣性”的概念因地制宜。对于历史学家来说,这是一个重要的标准。以利昂为圣徒是不是一个圣人被他的追随者视为超自然力量的来源。事实上,圣人首先是当地的圣人。在人民眼中,官方的圣人和当地的圣人是没有区别的。教皇也让当地的巫术运行其过程。
 
  Until about the 10th century,hagiolatry was essentially a spontaneous act of the local church,where the worship of saints by local Christian groups was established on the basis of popular approval without the need for"canonization."The recognition of the local bishop and the"welcoming"of the saint's body into the place of worship are the keys to the saints'being worshipped.The power of canonization was later vested in the Pope.It is generally believed that the power of canonization began in the late 10th century,but it was in the late 1270s,the late reign of Pope Alexander iii,that the Pope began to fully exercise his power of canonization.Since then,the Pope has appointed a commission to investigate the lives and miracles of saints as the basis for canonization,both of which continue to this day.But until the late middle ages,informal local hagiography continued.
 
  Early hagiolatry was basically focused on places where the bones of saints were buried.But in Western Europe,by the sixth century at the latest,objects of worship had been extended to the burial places of saints or to objects near them,such as the oil in the lamps,and to clothing,later more devoutly worshipped,stained with the blood of martyrs.These objects are considered"extensions"of the saint's body and enjoy the sanctity of the Eucharist.Between the 8th and 9th centuries,believers began to move the bodies of Roman martyrs from Christian cemeteries into the city's churches to prevent sacrilege of the Eucharist in cemeteries.Medieval Chronicles are full of accounts of groups of friars carrying their holy sacraments while fleeing invaders.Since then,people's religious belief has entered a period of special worship of holy objects.Holy sacraments and objects are constantly moved and divided by the faithful,bought and sold,stolen and robbed by fanatics,and even threatened and cursed by those who seek them.Early church rules required that a sacred object be placed on the altar of each holy church,and this was further reaffirmed by the seventh council of nicaea.Saints worship has been associated with holy communion since early times.On the anniversaries of saints,communion was held on the graves of martyrs,thus forming the custom of placing sacred objects on the altar.As a result,the prayer for saints became an important part of the Eucharist liturgy,and special liturgy was also produced for the saints'festivals,such as saints'preaching,eulogy,long preaching and reading ceremony.In this way,hagiolatry is integrated into the official worship of christians in an important way.
 
  The cult of saints in England arose around the 7th century.According to d.rolson,"sacred objects arrived in England with the first missionaries."The holy things of the apostles Peter and Paul and the Roman martyrs were the first to be introduced to England.For example,at the end of the 7th century,Pope vitalian presented the holy objects of the apostles Peter and Paul,as well as the martyrs st.Lawrence and st.John,to the king of northumbria,osween,and at the same time to the queen of northumbria,a golden cross made of the shackles worn by the apostles Peter and Paul.It is also recorded that bishop Benedict,founder of the Abbey of Peter,brought back holy objects of the apostles and Roman martyrs from Rome around 678.
 
  In Britain,the main function of hagiography is as a witness to conversion to Christianity.English catholics believe that saints must possess three basic qualities:asceticism,authority,and connection with the king.But,as d.rolson points out,"the cult of the saints did not prevail in England between 650-850."By the end of the middle ages,however,this situation had changed,with the rapid rise of the cult of saints in England and its development into a central part of popular religious beliefs.The change of saints worship in Britain is closely related to the people's desire for religious belief and the identity and function of saints in the middle ages.
 
  In the middle ages,people's religious beliefs were always focused on how to deal with their affairs most successfully by means of supernatural power.Such as how to avoid disease and natural disasters,how to make their own efforts to succeed,how to resist the power of the devil,how to obtain the grace of god and saints to ensure eternal happiness.Therefore,in this sense,there was a kind of"naked utilitarianism"in the religious belief of the medieval people.This was especially true in the late middle ages.The dependence of the English faithful on the saints is not chiefly as an imitator or a friend of the soul,but as a helper or healer in times of need,for the needs of the body,or of the agony of the dying soul,or of purgatory.Modest affluence,peace in war,healing from disease,divine death and eventual redemption,blessed by the sacraments of the church,were common aspirations in the late middle ages.Hagiolatry is precisely what satisfies this religious hunger.In the middle ages,the main identity of saints was as intercessors who conveyed the voice of the gods to their followers.Saints were seen as protectors of humanity and agents of god,and their functions made them ubiquitous in medieval religious life.
 
  Second,in reality,hagiography is not only the religion of the masses,but also a source of local pride and a means of profit.Thomas more complained that the ICONS of the virgin Mary appeared to be in a"state of competition",with devotees harping on the glory and validity of their own images,even though they honored the same person.In terms of profit,people are rich in ideas.Christ,for example,on the holy cross at bromhowe,was like a contraption with rolling eyes,moving limbs,and foaming mouths,snatching vast amounts of money from the pockets of pilgrims.
 
  In the late middle ages,hagiolatry even became an introduction to the social community.At that time,if a person was excluded from the cult of saints,he was considered disqualified from being part of the community.For example,a"crafty woman"in cambridgeshire was prevented from approaching the holy land by the ghost of st.William because of her witchcraft.This did not end until she was pardoned in the holy land.
 
  In conclusion,in the saints worship in late medieval England,the public began to pay attention to their own practical interests,and had a clear self-orientation and realistic orientation.They changed from begging for gods to demanding.Traditional religious roots gradually died out and gave way to utilitarianism.This may have been a very important change in the minds of the middle ages.At the same time,this change also gave birth to the British people's religious belief in the"individualism"ideological trend.
 
  Some people may say that the early Christianity has contained the spirit of simple realism,but the author thinks that it is just a fantasy,a spiritual sustenance that cannot be realized at all,and a kind of anesthetic.By the end of the middle ages,the spirit of realism contained in the religious beliefs of the British people reflected the economic and social life at that time,and was a new spiritual force adapting to the social reality.
 
  Therefore,in the late middle ages,the British people in the growth of material power at the same time,the spiritual realm also occurred in the new ideas germination.As Mr Tsien says:"in the late middle ages,the era of blind faith seemed to have ended and people began to look at the real world through a more rational lens.A new principle has crept up imperceptibly,that the secular need should be above the religious need,and that religion should serve the secular.

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