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Paper代写范文- Agnes对社会道德实现的看法

来源:网络整理 发布日期:2019-07-16 10:32 阅读: 作者:HotEssay 字数:15689字
文章导读:下面为大家整理一篇优秀的 Paper代写 范文- Agnes hellers understanding of the realization of social morality,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了阿格妮丝赫勒对社会道德实现的看法。阿格妮丝赫勒是东欧马克思主义理论家,也是布达佩斯学派的主要代表人物,面对20世纪西方资本主义现代性危机所带来的责任缺失、道德沦丧等现实状况,赫勒力图将伦理道德理论落实到行动中去,追求一种只问...

  下面为大家整理一篇优秀的Paper代写范文- Agnes heller's understanding of the realization of social morality,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了阿格妮丝·赫勒对社会道德实现的看法。阿格妮丝·赫勒是东欧马克思主义理论家,也是布达佩斯学派的主要代表人物,面对20世纪西方资本主义现代性危机所带来的责任缺失、道德沦丧等现实状况,赫勒力图将伦理道德理论落实到行动中去,追求一种只问耕耘、不问收获的过程。这是一种不断处于未完成状态,充满了无限可能性的道德哲学。赫勒对人类的现状、人的境况充满了一种不确定的悲观主义情绪。基于这样一种悲观判断,赫勒并没有相应地采取同样悲观的方式去发展她的道德哲学,反而是以一种积极前进的方式阐述其重构道德的理想。

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  Faced with the modern crisis of the western society in the 20th century, individual morality and responsibility are in continuous loss and bankruptcy. However, history is the history of mankind. As the only creature with history, man has left his responsibility behind and become a single line man without thoughts and exists as a batch product of natural science. The experience of reality leads heller to reflect deeply on this phenomenon, and she tries to ask what makes human beings lose their morality and responsibility. With the exploration of this problem, heller gradually constructed a moral utopia world which is infinite and tends to be perfect with the elements of ordinary and realistic "good people", and tried to regain the moral and responsibility of human beings. Among them, although there is no clear definition of "good man", "good man" should be the way that everyone can become and be able to become, and it is a universal reflection that exists in real social communication. The reality of morality may be precisely because of the possibility of good man. Such a moral utopia world, its practical significance and the value is not perfectly realize the best moral world eventually, but in the constant pursuit of ethical, moral, ethical, in the process to make more and more people realize their potential and become their own moral standard under the "good guys", finally realize the overall development of man.

  面对20世纪西方社会的现代危机,个人的道德和责任不断丧失和破产。然而,历史是人类的历史。人类作为唯一一个有历史的生物,把自己的责任抛在脑后,成为一个没有思想的单行线人,作为自然科学的一批产物而存在。现实的经验使海勒对这一现象进行了深刻的反思,并试图探究是什么使人失去了道德和责任。通过对这一问题的探索,海勒逐步构建了一个无限的道德乌托邦世界,这个世界趋向于与普通现实的“好人”元素完美结合,试图重获人类的道德和责任。其中,虽然对“好人”没有明确的定义,但“好人”应该是每个人都能成为和能够成为的方式,是现实社会交往中普遍存在的反映。道德的现实可能正是因为好人的可能性。这样一个道德乌托邦的世界,其现实意义和价值并不是最终完美地实现最好的道德世界,而是在不断追求道德、道德、伦理的过程中,使越来越多的人认识到自己的潜能,成为自己在“走”下的道德标准。最终实现了人的全面发展。

  Agnes Heller, a marxist theorist in eastern Europe and the main representative of the Budapest school, tried to put ethical and moral theories into action in the face of the reality such as the lack of responsibility and moral bankruptcy brought by the crisis of western capitalism modernity in the 20th century, and pursued a process of "no harvest, no work". It is a moral philosophy that is constantly in an unfinished state, full of infinite possibilities. Faced with the trauma of world war ii, heller was baffled by the conditions of human existence, trying to ask how the natural sciences that humanity prides itself on could be transformed into the dynamics of modern warfare, and where the invention of auschwitz had put humanity. It can be said that heller is full of an uncertain pessimism about the current situation and human condition. "a long period of stable hunting and gathering with small amplitude accompanied by the obvious temporary fluorescence leading to the rapid extinction of technology and society" is a pessimistic summary of human development. Human beings have become thoughtless one-dimensional creatures, "completely tame, completely controlled." The propositions of freedom, morality, and responsibility have lost their solidity and become slaves to machines and capital.

  东欧马克思主义理论家、布达佩斯学派的主要代表阿格尼斯海勒,试图在西方资本主义现代性危机所带来的责任缺失和道德破产等现实面前,将伦理道德理论付诸实践。20世纪,追求一个“不收获,不劳动”的过程。它是一种不断处于未完成状态,充满无限可能的道德哲学。面对第二次世界大战的创伤,海勒对人类生存的条件感到困惑,他试图问人类引以为豪的自然科学如何能转化为现代战争的动力,以及奥斯威辛的发明把人类置于何处。可以说,海勒对当前形势和人类状况充满了不确定的悲观情绪。”长期稳定的狩猎和采集,振幅小,伴随着明显的暂时荧光,导致技术和社会的迅速消亡,是人类发展的悲观总结。人类已经成为无思想的一维生物,“完全被驯服,完全被控制”,自由、道德和责任的主张已经失去了稳固性,成为机器和资本的奴隶。

  Based on such a pessimistic judgment, heller did not adopt the same pessimistic way to develop her moral philosophy, but expounded her ideal of reconstructing morality in a positive way. Although "good man" is the core element of heller's moral philosophy, heller does not pay attention to the deterministic interpretation of the concept of "good man". Heller paid more attention to the condition of "how good people are possible" than to the definition of "good people". To this end, heller sets up a moral utopia, describing a world with the best moral possibilities for "good people." In the best moral world, people conduct rational communication and negotiation for mutual benefit and follow the common universal values of freedom and life. Such a moral utopia does not mean that it can never be realized, but stands on earth as a spiritual pillar. Although the perfect moral world does not exist and may not be realized, the process of moral progress should become the eternal pursuit of human beings, and the final moral result is not so important. It can be said that this is an infinitely close to the full moral road of active struggle. "As long as good people exist, as long as accidental people choose to be good people, moral utopia is not a distant goal." Because there is a realistic possibility, so with hope to pursue.

  基于这样一种悲观的判断,海勒并没有采用同样的悲观方式来发展她的道德哲学,而是以积极的方式阐述了她重建道德的理想。虽然“好人”是海勒道德哲学的核心要素,但海勒并不重视对“好人”概念的确定性解释。海勒更关注“好人有多可能”的情况,而不是“好人”的定义。为此,海勒建立了一个道德乌托邦,描绘了一个“好人”有着最好道德可能性的世界,在最好的道德世界里,人们为了共同利益进行理性的沟通和谈判,遵循自由和生活的共同普世价值观。这样一个道德乌托邦并不意味着它永远无法实现,而是作为一个精神支柱屹立在地球上。虽然完美的道德世界不存在,也不可能实现,但道德进步的过程应该成为人类永恒的追求,最终的道德结果并不那么重要。可以说,这是一条无限接近积极斗争的道德完整道路。”只要好人存在,只要偶然的人选择做好人,道德乌托邦就不是一个遥远的目标。”因为有现实的可能性,所以带着希望去追求。

  Modern people are born with "human program", shaping their own thinking, action and behavior mode in modern social norms to adapt to the living social environment. Through discourse, behavior and communication, individual experience gradually forms its own unique perspective of experience, which serves as the basis for its unique judgment and choice of behavior. Here, we can not help but ask: how do people have the concept of "morality" in the modern society? Is conscience, as an ability to experience morality, possessed by everyone? Is it by instinct or is it the accumulation and education of acquired experience? As heller said, "whether morality is' from 'nature or contradicted by it, this is an unavoidable problem for any moral philosophy."

  现代人天生就有“人类程序”,在现代社会规范中塑造自己的思维、行为和行为模式,以适应生活的社会环境。个体经验通过话语、行为和交流逐渐形成自己独特的经验观,作为其独特的行为判断和选择的基础。在这里,我们不禁要问:在现代社会,人们是如何看待“道德”的概念的?良心,作为一种体验道德的能力,是否为每个人所拥有?是出于本能还是后天经验的积累和教育?正如海勒所说,“无论道德是‘来自’自然的还是与之相矛盾的,这对于任何道德哲学来说都是一个不可避免的问题。”

  Heller makes a very wise judgment about the nature of human nature. She never fantasizes about the goodness of human nature, nor denies the evil of human nature. The judgment of good and evil of human nature is not the focus of heller's moral philosophy, but she pays more attention to the recognition of the relative existence of good and evil. In real life, there will be people who are good for good, and there will be people who are evil for evil. To face evil, to realize good, to have the opportunity to be good. It is in the ethical choice that the abandonment of evil becomes good. In general, heller acknowledges that "the concept of 'human nature' is polymorphic, vague, and carries the meaning of subgenera." Human nature is both good and bad. Therefore, since the concept of "human nature" is too abstract and complex, heller prefers arendt's concept of "the human condition" when exploring how people's moral behaviors come into being.

  Heller had three descriptions of the "human condition," which, in a nutshell, are social norms that substitute for instinctive norms; Second, "living in tension" is historic; Third, historical determinacy and self-determinacy under the condition of historical rift. To be specific, first of all, "human condition" begins when human beings complete the replacement of instinctive norms by social norms, which is the double embodiment of human potential and limitation. The difference between man and other animals lies in that man's potential is to teach man how to control his "savage instinct", rather than to vent his animal desire like wild animals and ignore the norms of social communication. Secondly, social norms are created in a certain period of time and under certain social conditions, which are bound to have their limitations and scope of application. From the aspect of its scope of application, the social norm embodies the finiteness of human being, while from the aspect of the constant transformation of social norm and even the structural change replaced, it also depicts the infinite potential of human being. In a mobile social communication environment, human beings are constantly making social norms to adapt to their own survival changes. This is "the 'human condition' embodied as' living in tension '". In modern society, everyone is born with two congenital contingency, one is born contingency, the other is growth contingency. In two kinds of congenital chance together, the innate potential for congenital social reasons are gradually, and congenital society changing due to infinite inspire the potential of people, because the social norms are often specific, limited, and the potential of people can't see the boundary, so people always live in the tension between the two and inevitable between historic of the life. That is to say, as long as life in society, must live in society and people's own contradictions, a person with their genetic parts to adapt to the natural society, but the people of unlimited determines the inevitable contradictions, people and society when this contradiction is too large, will adjust social rules, and even will be replaced by a new social rules. In this process, the more people develop and improve, the more they will not adapt to social norms. This is the manifestation of the incomplete connection between the two innate things, and also the presentation of the third meaning of "human situation". People's growth process is instinct norms and social norms regulating the process of each other, and in this process, people will inevitably experience social norms to replace instinct specification, instinct specification by people's moral self regression, finally become the dominant standard that instinctive specification, rather than being muzzled by social norms, losing one's own dynamic characteristics. Each person transforms the individual innate genetic contingency and innate specific social contingency into human destiny, which is the process of man becoming the pilot of his own destiny. In the process of social communication, he constantly makes his own choices and continuously Bridges the historical cracks. Just as "the essence of man is not the inherent abstract of a single individual, in its reality, it is the sum of all social relations". Heller's understanding of "human condition" from the objective activities of human is to explore the meaning of human essence in social norms. Morality is not an abstract demand for individuals, but a strong desire to return to daily life and a guiding demand for the concrete behavior of interacting with people. However, why are there so many different moral standards in daily life?

  In the course of human civilization, it is not difficult to observe that different civilizations have different moral standards. The difference in moral standards in diverse cultures does not mean that human civilization develops vertically or backward. This phenomenon can only explain that human beings will have different moral standards due to different social needs in different forms of social communication. The development of human civilization has never been a single line of progress or degradation. Experience and the development of human potential show us that human civilization is diverse and overlapping, and the resulting moral norms and rules cannot be universally applicable to all cultures or all human beings. Therefore, what we need to do is to explore why morality of one kind or another arises in a particular civilization, at a particular moment, rather than pursue a universal moral standard that can never meet all people's needs. Once moral standards are static and unchanging, they will not bring order to human beings, but the fetters of order. As a matter of fact, the changeable and varied standards of substantive morality are not only due to the existence of a pluralistic cultural society, but also due to the inevitable umbilical cord that cannot be perfectly connected between the ego and social norms. The greater the difference between the self and others, between the self and society, the more the extra meaning of the self can be embodied in the relationship with others, that is, those meanings which are not provided by the universal norm. Therefore, it is only in diverse societies that cultural surplus can be generated and various moral standards and norms can be constantly changed, adjusted and enriched, making them always mobile, rather than making human society become a collection of rigid and unchangeable social norms. Under different social circumstances, people have different interest requirements, and the generation of morality in line with human interest is what the civilization of each period needs to pursue due to its necessary social communication. The recognition of the relatively dynamic adjustment of moral standards is not only a prerequisite for maintaining the interests of human beings and carrying out smooth social communication, but also the only way to formulate moral rules and norms in line with the specific reality, rather than make social reality adapt to rigid moral rules and norms.

  At the individual level, individual character and unique social experience bring different moral standards to everyone. Everyone has his or her own way of social interaction, principles, and different values based on individual experience. There will be 10 million different ideas among 10 million people. Although some ideas will be similar and similar, there will inevitably be contradictions and conflicts among some ideas. To be specific, since people are social beings, they will inevitably accumulate more and more social experience in the process of communicating with others, and everyone's social experience will not be exactly the same, so the individual values gradually constructed will not be exactly the same. In the same way, in human relationships, the meaning of my existence is better understood by others than by me. For in others, people see my force in their lives, which is a meaning that exists only in relationships, and a single person can never form a meaning, but only themselves. Heller once said, "experience is so heterogeneous, so all-encompassing, that its main forms are hard to count. Experience, as a settled experience, carries the meaning that makes our body relevant to other meaningful bodies." This is to say that experience has individual differences and is completely heterogeneous. In daily life, experience is bound to be all-encompassing, which is accumulated in practice and carries the meaning of interpersonal relationship. As an internal norm of self, experience guides individual behaviors and completes social communication. Therefore, it is an inevitable phenomenon of social development to produce a variety of different moral standards and values based on different civilizations, different people's experiences, accumulation and inheritance modes and degrees. Therefore, in heller's moral philosophy, the goal of his moral philosophy is how to make multicultural society coordinate with each other in the multi-moral standards, and conduct mutually beneficial exchanges, rather than exploring a universal morality.


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