来源:网络整理 发布日期:2019-07-14 13:41 阅读: 作者:HotEssay 字数:19714字
文章导读:下面为大家整理一篇优秀的 Assignment代写 范文- The axiology of labor happiness,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了劳动幸福的价值论。劳动幸福作为一个价值判断,是价值的实践特质必然引出的结论。...

  下面为大家整理一篇优秀的Assignment代写范文- The axiology of labor happiness,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了劳动幸福的价值论。劳动幸福作为一个价值判断,是价值的实践特质必然引出的结论。坚持马克思主义的价值理念,无论从理论上还是从实践上,必然主张劳动幸福论。因为在价值论视域中,人类劳动必然产生成果,以满足人生存和发展的物质与精神的需要。劳动是人的自由自觉的活动,人在这一过程中认识世界、认识劳动对象,积累各式各样的生存智慧,并使之得到检验和发展。



  What is value? This is the first question that comes up in the discussion of value. Reviewing the classic works of Marx and Engels, we can see that the concept of value has different understandings in economics and philosophy. The "value" of philosophy is a category that marks the relationship between subject and object in the process of practice, which reflects the degree to which the object satisfies the needs of the subject. Therefore, the value of economics and the value of philosophy are different from each other in terms of objects, fields and problems to be solved and explained. The value mentioned in this paper naturally refers to the value in the philosophical sense of Marx.


  The main purpose of philosophical thinking is to think about the reality and the due of the world. The former is to solve the problem of what the world is, while the latter is to solve the problem of what the world should be. In "the theses on feuerbach", Marx clearly pointed out the fundamental difference between old and new philosophical thinking. He said: "the whole social life is practical in nature. Whatever leads theory to mysticism can be reasonably solved in human practice and in the understanding of this practice." This also reveals the root meaning of practice to axiology. From this, formed the three characteristics of marxist value category.


  Professor li deshun, a famous scholar of axiology in China, once pointed out that, "in the research and application of value philosophy at home and abroad, two theories and their ways of thinking once occupied a dominant position. According to the subjective theory, value is, after all, the existence and product of a certain spirit, and value only occurs and exists in people's subjective purport and idea. The other is the object theory of value represented by the entity-attribute theory. Objectivism emphasizes that 'many different things are inherently good or bad' and specifically denies any connection between value and human body and mind. ... There are two kinds of object theory: entity theory and attribute theory. Among them, the attribute theory seems to be more convincing, so it is still widely influential." Here, both the subjective theory and the object theory of value have a common defect: they neglect the basic role of practice in value. Therefore, neither fully recognizes the root meaning of people's life practice to value thinking. First of all, from the perspective of the generation of value thinking, value thinking does not happen for no reason. It does not happen only in people's subjective consciousness, as the subjectivist thinks, nor does it happen as the object-theorist thinks, it is the existence of things, and the value expresses the meaning of things to people. This meaning is generated in human practice. As Lenin put it: "the whole of human practice must be included in the complete 'definition' of things, as the criterion of truth, and as the actual determiner of the thing's relation to that point which man wants it to be." This tells us that the establishment of the relationship between things and people's needs, that is, the establishment of the value relationship, is dependent on practice. Secondly, from the perspective of the relationship between cognitive activities and value thinking, value thinking is the unique way of life and activity. Because, one as a product of long-term evolution in nature, its activities are related to the purpose, the perceptual activity or practice object of objective condition and the external environment, although the regulation with the premise of human practice activity, means and possibility, but the inside dimensions of the person or people to meet the expectations of the purpose, people and the result of the activities of the expected value such as thinking, is embedded in the practical activities of man, that is reflected the people's "targeted" characteristic of the activity. Thirdly, whether value thinking is correct is also tested by practice. As some scholars have pointed out, "whether value thinking really reflects the mode, procedure, method, rule and so on of life practice is not a question of pure theory, but a question of practice. Only by returning to the life practice of the subject, feeding it back to life and acting on the concrete practice of 'changing the world', can people compare and verify it in the concrete historical life practice, and correct all the thinking distortions and errors caused by abstraction, subjectivity and arrogance." This shows that value thinking is an intrinsic component of people's cognition of things, and value thinking is infiltrated in the nature, structure, mode, process and result of practice. The successful practice not only tests the correctness of cognitive achievements, but also verifies the right and wrong value thinking. In the view of marxist philosophy, practice is the way of human existence and life form. Practice is not only the form of creating wealth, but also the process of realizing value thinking. The value of life and the value of people are not generated automatically by the subject itself, nor are they possessed by the object itself, but are reflected in the objectification activities of the subject and realized in the practical relationship between people and objects. In practice, human subjectivity is constantly generated, human ability is constantly enhanced, human quality is constantly improved, and human needs are constantly met. Successful practice is the result of double correct knowledge of truth and value. This situation has been clearly reflected in the development history of industrial and agricultural production and the construction of socialism with Chinese characteristics.


  When we overcome the subjective value on theory and object theory, on the basis of the practice thinking on value of things, can be found that displayed on value relationship, a relationship between the object and the subject of "objective activity", as the main body to make in practice of the generated object can meet the requirements of certain aspects of the subject, which make it has value to the body. In this process, "objective activity" is the activity of establishing relations, without which "relationship" between subject and object is of no value at all. This "relationship", without practice, cannot be generated. Here, it should be emphasized that relational thinking and entity thinking are very different. Since the early philosophical thinking of human beings all attempted to seek the beginning or origin of the world, the substantial thinking has a long history. Entity thinking thinks that "the world" is composed of some kind of smallest and most basic unit with mass. Prior to Lenin's definition of "matter" as objective reality, old materialism was typical of adhering to "substantial thinking". Relational thinking, on the other hand, is a judgment on whether the object is suitable or consistent with the purpose, interests and needs of the subject when people establish a specific subject-object relationship with the object in practice. This "relational thinking" based on the subject and object has social reality, historicity and comprehensiveness. It requires the analysis of the current or long-term significance of the existence and nature of the object in the realistic social and historical relationship between the subject and the object, in the comprehensive relationship between man and the world, and in the dynamic development of the contradictory movement of the subject and object. It can be seen that the practical and relational characteristics of value are inseparable. It is precisely this dialectical relationship between subject and object based on practice that reveals the connection between subject measure and value phenomenon, thus making various value and meaning evaluation come into being. Only when we understand the value of "relational thinking" in the sense of the connection between object and subject can we get rid of the bias of "substantive thinking" and subjectivism and objectivism and achieve the value thinking in line with the actual situation. Generally speaking, relational thinking consists of two basic conditions: positive and negative. The positive relation is that through practice, the object meets the needs of the subject and forms the positive value. The negative relation is that in practice, the object negates and subverts the needs of the subject and forms negative value. In this respect, the most typical example is the completely different results of labor and alienated labor. The former is the workers feel happy, while the latter is the workers suffer exploitation and humiliation.


  "Only by fully revealing and maintaining people's subject status can we grasp the essence of the problem." Because the content affirmed by the concept of "value" is that the existence, function and change of the object are suitable, close or consistent with certain needs and development of the subject. Thus it can be seen that whether there is value or not is to the subject and affirms a subjective fact. This kind of human nature is different from person to person, because people are specific and varied, while value thinking is a kind of thinking related to the subject's self. As a thinking to reflect on the relationship between oneself and the objective world, it is a sign of people's self-knowledge level and their own development. In class society, all kinds of evaluations are marked with class and thus have a strong ideological attribute. The biggest difference between value thinking and people's habit of objectivism thinking lies in that value thinking is inseparable from people. On the one hand, value thinking varies from person to person, which is a multi-dimensional and individualized non-identical thinking. On the other hand, due to the concreteness and historicity of people's social existence, people's value thinking is also concrete, historical and multi-dimensional. This seemingly clear theory is often misinterpreted when referring to current "environmental problems" and "ecological problems". In order to emphasize the importance of "environment" and "nature", some people even advocate "the integration of nature and man", holding that only by treating "human" and "nature" as "dual subjects", can the thinking obstacles behind "environmental problems" be theoretically solved. This is the misunderstanding of the subjectivity of value thinking. Because, left the human nature, even if it "frozen in one thousand" or "monstrous flood", is it doesn't matter, today is the "environment" as a problem, can meet the needs of the body and the environment, from the environment to meet for a long time and meets the needs of the main body of the forever, from the people and the development of health, left on the main body care, these problems can't set up as a problem. The sustainable development of environment is not only for the environment itself, but also for the sustainable development of people. Therefore, the object and the subject should not be equated because of the environmental problems, but the raising of the environmental problems itself should be regarded as a new height of the development of the subject. Because optimizing the environment itself is for the better and healthier development of human beings. As a scholar said, "' man is the center of man's world and man is the center of man himself. 'this is a unique and inevitable phenomenon of' egocentrism '." Therefore, the approach, process and level of value thinking is actually the standard of self-understanding level of human being as the value subject, and also the symbol of the development level of the subject itself.

  In a word, in the field of value, people occupy the dominant position. All values are judged by human's subjective standard and people-oriented. We talk about value in the sense of the connection between things and people in practice. In the specific process of social history, with the development of social productivity, people's social needs have changed, and the evaluation scale of the same thing has also changed.

  In order to illustrate the theme, first of all, the concept of "happiness" is briefly explained: happiness is for people, animals and their lives are directly the same, their life activities are themselves, and people are different, happiness is exclusive to the concept of people. For man belongs to nature, is subject to it, and is distinguished from it; Man can separate himself from the object in his consciousness, thus separating himself from nature and transcending nature. Marx said in the economic and philosophical manuscripts of 1844, "man not only makes himself double mentally as he does in consciousness, but also makes himself double actively and realistically, so as to visualize himself in the world he created." This tells us that people's life has the duality of objective objects and subjective feelings, which also determines the duality of happiness. "In Marx's view, human happiness is the result and experience of people's active and realistic realization of their own duality, and the direct result and feeling of people in their created world." This shows that happiness is not only subjective psychological experience, but also rooted in the objective object, happiness is the unity of subjectivity and objectivity. Marx once said: "the most beautiful music is meaningless to the ear without music sense." It shows the relationship between objective objects and psychological experience, which is a good illustration of the duality of happiness. Here, "the most beautiful music" is the primary and root sex, while the feeling of music is the secondary sex, the psychological response to the former, which is different from person to person.

  As a value judgment, labor happiness is an inevitable conclusion drawn from the practical characteristics of value, that is to say, adhering to the marxist value concept, no matter theoretically or practically, it is inevitable to advocate labor happiness theory. Because in the view of axiology, human labor inevitably produces three major results to meet the material and spiritual needs of human survival and development. First of all, labor is man's way of life. Labor creates man, and man lives by it for generations. As an objective activity, labor process is the process of human's essential power acting on the object of labor, thus creating the material life materials needed for human survival, namely material wealth. This process, that is, the material needs of people to meet the formation of value process. Secondly, labor is a free and conscious activity of human beings. In this process, people know the world and the objects of labor, accumulate various kinds of survival wisdom, and make it tested and developed. Labor makes people confirm the growth of their own essential power, understand the meaning of their lives, this process, is also the spiritual needs of people to meet the formation of value process. Thirdly, labor not only develops the physical strength and intelligence of human beings, but also enables people to realize themselves in practice through "objectification activities", and to reflect on themselves in the world created by their own labor, thus realizing the development of human beings themselves. Not only the individual life of workers can be enriched and grown, but also the human kind of life can be extended for generations, so that people can get a sense of pleasure and pride only created by the subject. These three achievements are not only born of labor, but also develop with the improvement of labor level. It goes without saying that there is an inevitable link between work and happiness. Here it needs to be pointed out that the above mentioned labor in the philosophical level is the "overall" concept of labor, which not only refers to physical labor, but also refers to mental labor, including art, management, scientific research and other forms of mental labor. Here, all forms of labor are equal, because they are necessary for the development of a healthy society. If labor as "objectification activity" mainly refers to physical labor that creates material wealth, then "accumulation of living wisdom", "meeting spiritual needs", "understanding the world", "realizing oneself" and "looking back on oneself" are all synonyms of various mental labor. The diversity of forms of labor is consistent with the diversity of forms of practice. In the past, for a long time, people only lifted the form of physical labor to the highest status and devalued other forms of labor, which is a misunderstanding of the marxist concept of practice and the concept of labor. Contemporary rubbings have shown that in the process of human evolution, alone to walk upright, hands and feet, division of labor, language, without the development of human brain in labor, namely original wisdom accumulated in the original labor, there will be no tool making and improvement, will not produce the product of mental activity, such as the original paintings wouldn't apes evolved as primitive, primitive man won't evolution for modern people. Therefore, as a philosophical category of labor, with the greatest generality and universality.


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