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美国Assignment代写范文-美国的新品格教育

来源:网络整理 发布日期:2019-07-09 10:46 阅读: 作者:HotEssay 字数:13816字
文章导读:下面为大家整理一篇优秀的 Assignment代写 范文-Americas new character education,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的新品格教育。20世纪80年代,面对美国社会出现的糟糕道德状况,美国的普通民众和教育界有识之士开始呼吁加强对青少年的道德教育,进行新一轮的学校道德教育改革,即新品格教育运动。新品格教育的开展归根结底是为了追求一种道德共识,实现社会整合。20世纪...
  下面为大家整理一篇优秀的Assignment代写范文-America's new character education,供大家参考学习,这篇论文讨论了美国的新品格教育。20世纪80年代,面对美国社会出现的糟糕道德状况,美国的普通民众和教育界有识之士开始呼吁加强对青少年的道德教育,进行新一轮的学校道德教育改革,即新品格教育运动。新品格教育的开展归根结底是为了追求一种“道德共识”,实现“社会整合”。20世纪90年代以来,新品格教育的组织纷纷成立,包括公民教育中心、伦理与品格促进中心。这些品格教育组织致力于培养青少年的良好品格和公民道德,影响美国政府的决策,帮助学校设计新品格教育课程。
 
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  The new character education is an education reform movement in the United States.Although China and the United States have distinct differences in political system,economic basis and cultural ideology,the exploration of the reasons for the rise of the new character education in the United States can be a mirror,from which we can learn some experience and lessons.
  新性教育是美国的一项教育改革运动。尽管中美两国在政治制度、经济基础和文化意识形态等方面存在着明显的差异,但探索美国新性教育兴起的原因可以成为一面镜子,从中我们可以吸取一些经验教训。
 
  The failure of the American school moral education reform and the bad social moral condition in the 1960s and 1970s are the main reasons for the rise of the new American character education.From the reasons for the rise of new character education,we can draw two beneficial inspirations.
  美国学校德育改革的失败和20世纪60、70年代社会道德状况的恶化是新美国人格教育兴起的主要原因。从新人格教育兴起的原因出发,我们可以得出两个有益的启示。
 
  Looking back at the history of the development of American school moral education,objectively speaking,before the 1960s,the United States had always attached importance to the tradition of carrying out school moral education for minors.American families took the initiative to undertake the responsibility of carrying out family moral education for children,and the whole society generally supported school moral education.Due to inherited Aristotle advocated by moral infusion method to practice the doctrine of the"virtue can be taught",on the methods of moral education,mainly using the method of moral indoctrination,main performance at school is a teacher in the classroom teaching of"knowledge of moral",students in a passive to accept the position,in this kind of relationship between teachers and students,students in a passive position,the students'subjectivity and personality is neglected,the moral education pattern is referred to as"cramming"teaching.Students'ideological and moral quality of high and low,often is to pass the examination test,the evaluation of students'ideological and moral quality to pass the examination test way due to ignore the specific complexity of moral situation,the lack of the students'moral real experience,is essentially to detect the ability of the students'moral knowledge,and practical application to the student's moral learning is used to detect the social practice ability is not to come out or only rarely detected.In short,before the 1960s,the moral education in American schools went to an extreme in both theory and practice,that is,it took teachers as the center,emphasized teachers'subjectivity and dominance,and neglected students'subjectivity.
  回顾美国学校道德教育发展的历史,客观地说,20世纪60年代以前,美国一直重视对未成年人进行学校道德教育的传统。美国家庭主动承担起对儿童进行家庭道德教育的责任,全社会普遍支持学校道德教育。由于继承了亚里士多德倡导的道德灌输方法来实践“德性可以教”的教义,关于道德教育的方法,主要采用道德灌输的方法,学校主要表现为教师在课堂上讲授“道德知识”,学生在课堂上学习。TS处于被动接受的地位,在这种师生关系中,学生处于被动的地位,学生的主体性和个性被忽视,德育模式被称为“填鸭式”教学。学生思想道德素质的高低,往往是通过考试,对学生思想道德素质的评价是通过考试的方式,由于忽视了道德状况的具体复杂性,缺乏学生的道德真实体验,是对学生道德素质的一种客观评价。从语义上检测学生的道德知识能力,而实际应用到学生的道德学习中,是用来检测社会实践能力不出来或很少被检测出来的。简言之,20世纪60年代以前,美国学校的道德教育在理论和实践上都走向了极端,即以教师为中心,强调教师的主体性和支配性,忽视了学生的主体性。
 
  This kind of school moral education situation denounced by the progressive school more because hart Sean and mei"character education research"demonstrated by the results of the character education skills and students'common moral behavior patterns have little contact or no contact between,reveals a character education will have little impact on the students'daily behavior.American academia began to reflect on the traditional moral education,urgent to seek a kind of new moral education approach,logical,60-70-s of the 20th century American school moral education to start the reform,the reform movement,there are two typical representative,namely the las,such as mode of value clarification and kohlberg's moral development theory,the two kinds of model is established on the basis of the criticism of traditional character education,school-based moral education,both against the character education way for the center with virtue,do not emphasize a particular moral education content,only attach importance to the process of moral education,Teaching students ways of moral cognition and moral reasoning;In the face of the American society of value diversification trend,not to emphasized the mainstream values of the guidance,in order to embodies social moral consensus,but in order to pursue the so-called each ethnic group's values,political rights equality,the attitude of value neutrality,requirements for teachers don't teach specific moral knowledge,only one-sided emphasis on moral decision-making process and the importance of personal freedom and discipline.Both model theories believed that they provided a way of moral education consistent with the American way of life at that time.However,the opposition to the specific education of virtues and virtues,so that students have no moral standards to follow,the social authority is bound to weaken;Teachers are required to take a value-neutral attitude and pay no attention to the specific content of moral education,but only pay attention to the process of moral education.In fact,they blindly believe in the moral reasoning ability of students,which is essentially equivalent to giving up the moral education of students.It can be seen that this kind of moral education proposition essentially goes to the other extreme,that is,one-sided belief in students'ability,although it insists on students'subjectivity,it gives up teachers'dominance.As a teenager lack of social experience,is a"day",the students should make full use of this period"to the teacher"to strengthen the education of students,but don't let the students to accept a specific code of ethics,and in the absence of guidance and teaching for students to carry on the moral cognition and moral practice,essentially only is a kind of irresponsible act.
  这种学校德育状况更多地受到进步学校的谴责,因为哈特·肖恩和梅的“品德教育研究”的结果表明,品德教育技能与学生常见的道德行为模式之间几乎没有联系或没有联系,显示出品德教育对学生的日常行为影响不大。美国学术界开始反思传统的道德教育,迫切寻求一种新的道德教育方法,逻辑上,60-70年代的20世纪美国学校开始了道德教育改革,改革运动中,有两个典型的代表,即LAS,这样一个S型价值澄清模式与科尔伯格的道德发展理论,这两种模式都是在对传统品德教育的批判基础上建立起来的,校本道德教育既反对以品德为中心的品德教育方式,也不强调一个部分。具体的道德教育内容,只重视道德教育的过程,教学生道德认知的方式和道德推理;面对美国社会价值多元化的趋势,不强调主流价值观的引导,以期体现出这样的价值观。社会道德共识,但为了追求所谓各民族的价值观、政治权利平等、价值中立的态度,要求教师不传授具体的道德知识,只片面强调道德决策过程和个人的重要性。自由和纪律。两种模式理论都认为,它们提供了一种与当时美国生活方式相一致的道德教育方式。然而,反对德育的具体化,使学生没有道德标准可循,社会权威必然弱化;要求教师采取价值中立的态度,不重视德育的具体内容,而只注重德育。注意道德教育的过程。事实上,他们盲目相信学生的道德推理能力,这实质上等同于放弃对学生的道德教育。由此可见,这种德育命题本质上走向了另一个极端,即片面地相信学生的能力,虽然它坚持学生的主体性,但却放弃了教师的主导性。作为一个缺乏社会经验的青少年,是一个“天”,学生应充分利用这段时间“向老师”加强对学生的教育,但不要让学生接受特定的道德规范,而在缺乏指导和教学的情况下,为学生进行莫过于道德认知和道德实践,本质上只是一种不负责任的行为。
 
  The reform of American school moral education in 1960s and 1970s made the school moral education that should play a leading role in the moral education of teenagers not play its due role.In addition,during this period,with the rapid development of the American economy,the traditional stable family structure was constantly destroyed,the divorce rate of families was on the rise,and the breakdown of the relationship between parents made children's family moral education in a lack of status,and teenagers lacked the most direct objects to imitate.Moreover,due to the continuous strengthening of social mobility in this period,various traditional social organizations have been declining,while the emerging social organizations have not yet been established or functioning.The disintegration of the traditional safety net composed of schools,families and social organizations exposes teenagers to a variety of values.Teenagers lack the means to choose the right values and are vulnerable to the erosion of various wrong values and cultures,and they go further and further on the wrong road.As American teenagers with no future with a good moral education and guidance,in the social life in a lot of problem of"morality",such as performance in the movie forrest gump the 60-70-s of the 20th century American teenagers moral values distorted,the lack of desire to do better,blindly against authority,and the pursuit of absolute freedom,in an ideal short,began to degenerate.All these have not only affected the national image of the United States,destroyed the stability of the society,but also caused immeasurable losses to the American economy,threatening the domination of the American bourgeoisie.
 
  In the 1980s,faced with the bad moral situation in the American society,ordinary people and people of insight in the American education circle began to call for strengthening the moral education for teenagers,and carried out a new round of school moral education reform,namely the new character education movement.The development of new character education is to pursue a"moral consensus"and achieve"social integration".The new round of reform of school moral education is supported by the new conservatism,the new conservatism resolutely combating counterculture ethos,insist on long ago already existing in capitalism patriarchal family,powerful country,based on the specification of religion,paternalism and obedience form an ideal system,emphasis on family and religion play an importance in maintaining social order;It advocates both basic education and the restoration of morality,discipline and teachers'authority in schools.It opposes the value neutrality of schools and believes that there are some basic human values,such as honesty,respect and responsibility.Calls for more federal control of education.The federal government and state governments at all levels have not only provided financial support,but also conducted special moral education programs.As for the academic world,there are many books on the new character education,such as kilpatrick's why Johnny doesn't know right and wrong,and rebuilding our schools:A handbook of teaching character,scholarship,and discipline by Edward a.wynne and Kevin Ryan.These works and papers discuss the basic concept and theoretical basis of character education,and put forward some opinions on how to carry out character education in primary and secondary schools.Since the 1990s,new character education organizations have been set up,including civic education centers and ethics and character promotion centers.These character education organizations work to develop good character and citizenship among young people,influence U.S.government decisions,and help schools design new character education programs.
 
  Through the above preliminary exploration of the reasons for the rise of new character education in the United States,we can draw some warnings,which are of far-reaching significance to our school moral education.
 
  At present,there is basically no one denying the necessity and significance of moral education in schools in our academic circles and teachers.But there is no denying that,with the development of The Times and the impact of various cultural views,one day in the future,our country may also appear a situation like that of the United States--one-sided pursuit of students'subjectivity,neglect of teachers'dominance,and abandon the responsibility of moral education for students.It is not true,as the current update education concept,teachers have consciously abandoned the practice of the past to ignore students'subjectivity,began to more and more attention to the students'role in teaching,and even some teachers decide to let the students in the classroom,it is a good thing,but if one step forward will walk into another extreme,namely only attach importance to students'subjectivity,denied that the teacher's leading,causing the"absence"of school moral education.Therefore,we must be prepared for the future,resolutely alert to the phenomenon of"de-moralization education",firmly adhere to the moral education of students.At the same time in the choice of the content of moral education must adhere to the mainstream values and mainstream values of the whole social common recognition,represents the consensus of the social morals,it can play a role social cohesion,we can't because of the current and future interests of diversification,gave up the mainstream values of value diversification,let all kinds of decadent values erode the teen brain,the brain of the masses,the advanced thought weapon not to occupy,the backward ideas will be occupied.
 
  In the field of school moral education,the United States by the action of organization attaches great importance to the family and society's significant achievements,as well as 60-70 s of the 20th century,because of the lack of family moral education and social organization of fatigue caused by the bad moral opposite situation,enlightenment we should make full integration of schools,families,communities,and other aspects of power and moral education together to form a network,through the establishment of a wide variety of moral community to promote the formation of individual character.Attach importance to the combination of moral knowledge learned by students and specific moral practice,and make school moral education return to real life from the circle of scientific,formalized,idealized and adult,and deal with the problems encountered in the process of moral education with life as the carrier,so that students can experience and construct virtue.Parents should also strengthen the way and method of family moral education,set an example and be the first qualified teacher for their children.At the same time,other social organizations,including the community and the management office of martyrs cemetery,should also participate in the moral education and training of students,so that students can feel the power of morality in specific life.

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